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Integumentary System Anatomy and Physiology Interactive Exam-Quiz, Anatomy & Physiology 12 hr

(Non-Technique Continuing Education Course to know Principles, Chronology & Science: Not massage Therapy Techniques or Manipulation of Soft Tissue)

Online CE Class for Texas Massage Therapists. Texas Department of State Health Services DSHS Massage Therapy TX Licensed Continuing Education Provider TX DSHS Massage CEU Provider License Number: CE 1608 provided by TX Licensed Instructor: Daniel C. PhD EMT LMT MTI, Integrity Services, Granbury, TX 76048

You can review course material and retake exam (unlimited attempts) until you pass! You can watch this summary video for exam review

Question 1: The outermost layer of the skin is the
Subcutaneous Layer

The skin is the body's largest organ, covering the body. In addition to serving as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection, the skin also:

·         Regulates body temperature.

·         Stores water and fat.

·         Is a sensory organ.

·         Prevents water loss.

·         Prevents entry of bacteria.

Question 2: All of the following are functions of the skin EXCEPT
Vitamin B

Temperature Regulation or Thermoregulation

Question 3: The protein that helps protect the skin and underlying tissue is


Question 4: The cells producing the pigment responsible for skin color are the
Merkel Cells

Question 5: All of the following are accessory organs of the skin EXCEPT

Pain Receptors
Sweat Glands

Question 6: The bundle of smooth muscles associated with hair follicles is called
orbicularis muscle
arrector pili
sebaceous bundle
None of the Above

Question 7: Perspiration is the substance produced by
Ceruminous Glands
Sebaceous Glands
Holocrine Glands
sudoriferous Glands

Glands of the body are classified as either exocrine or endocrine types. Exocrine glands are glands that retain ducts to body surfaces. During development, endocrine glands lose their contacts to embryological surfaces or ducts and become isolated as small blocks of tissues. Endocrine glands are therefore referred to as ductless glands. Endocrine and exocrine glands secrete various products. These include hormones, enzymes, metabolites, and other molecules. In exocrine glands, products of these cells collect in the duct of the gland and flow toward the surface to which the duct is in contact. Since endocrine glands lack ducts, the product is released across the cell membrane into interstitial spaces around the cells. Diffusion of the product into capillaries follows. Most glands of the body are exocrine types with ducts connecting to anatomical surfaces. Contrast your salivary glands that open into the oral cavity with sweat glands that deposit their product on the body surface. Both types of glands are buried in deeper tissues but their products appear on a superficial surface. Connecting the glands to the surfaces are ducts.

A great deal of variation can be found in the design of glands. They are classified into simple and compound types. Note there are tubular and alveolar types. Here is a

branched alveolar type, a sebaceous gland associated with a hair follicle. Secretory cells of exocrine glands release their products into ducts in three different ways. The mode of secretion can be classified as merocrine, apocrine, or holocrine. Cells that secrete products via the merocrine method form membrane-bound secretory vesicles internal to the cell. These are moved to the apical surface where the vesicles coalesce with the membrane on the apical surface to release the product. Most glands release their products in way.

In those glands that release product via the apocrine method, the apical portions of cells are pinched off and lost during the secretory process. This results in a secretory product that contains a variety of molecular components including those of the membrane. Mammary glands release their products in this manner.

The third type of secretory release, holocrine, involves death of the cell. The secretory cell is released and as it breaks apart, the contents of the cell become the secretory product. This mode of secretion results in the most complex secretory product. Some sweat glands located in the axillae, pubic areas, and around the areoli of the breasts release their products in this manner. Sebaceous glands also are of this type.

Regardless of gland type, structural complexity, or mode of secretion, epithelia are the secretory cells of all glands. Epithelia also form the ducts that connect the glands to the surface. Remember this as glandular structures found in tissues can be identified as clusters of tightly packed cells with very little intercellular space, an epithelial characteristic. When ducts are present and cut in longitudinal or cross-section, epithelial cells are also seen making up these structures. Simple cuboidal epithelia are the most typical type found in the body and ducts of exocrine glands.

Here is a view of simple cuboidal cells of a duct in cross-section and longitudinal section.

Endocrine glands are the hormone producing structures of the body. Some, like the thyroid are large and obvious. Others, for instance the islet cells of the pancreas, are small islands of endocrine cells embedded within the larger exocrine portion of this organ.

In lacking ducts, endocrine cells release their secretory products into the interstitial spaces around the cells. The hormones diffuse into nearby capillaries and are then carried to all parts of the body. Only when the hormones encounter a target organ do they exert an effect.

Question 8: A burn that involves the entire epidermis and some of the dermis is a
First Degree Burn
Third Degree Burn
Fourth Degree Burn
Second Degree Burn


The epidermis is the thin, outer layer of the skin which consists of the following three parts:

·         Stratum corneum (horny layer)
This layer consists of cells containing the protein keratin. it keeps body fluid in while keeping external substances out. As the outermost layer, it continuously flakes off.

·         Keratinocytes (squamous cells)
This layer consists of living cells that are maturing and moving toward the surface to become the stratum corneum.

·         Basal layer
This layer is where new skin cells divide to replace the old cells that are shed at the surface.

The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment).


The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. The dermis contains the following:

·         Blood vessels

·         Lymph vessels

·         Hair follicles

·         Sweat glands

·         Collagen bundles

·         Fibroblasts

·         Nerves

The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, made by fibroblasts. This layer also contains nerve endings that conduct pain and touch signals.


The subcutis is the deepest layer of skin. The subcutis, consisting of a network of collagen and fat cells, helps conserve the body's heat and protects the body from injury by acting as a "shock absorber."

Question 9: The most common form of skin cancer is
granular cell carcinoma.
malignant melanoma.
squamous cell carcinoma.
basal cell carcinoma.

Question 10: A major function of the skin is protection from
Ultraviolet Light
Entry of Micro-organisms
All of the Above

Question 11: The layer of skin that is composed of dense connective tissue and has projections called papillae is the
stratum corneum
stratum basale

Question 12: Striae occur as a result of
too many fibers in the hypodermis
overstretching the dermis
loss of hair follicles


Question 13: This layer contains loose connective tissue and has about half of the body's stored fat
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Basale

Question 14: The specific layer that shapes the ridges for fingerprints and footprints is the
reticular layer of the dermis
underlying muscle layer
papillary layer of the dermis
superficial bony layer

Question 15: The epidermis is nourished by diffusion from capillaries in the
Reticular Layer of the Dermis
Papillary Layer of the Dermis
Subcutaneous Tissue

Question 16: Cell division occurs in which layer of the epidermis?
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Basale

Because our skin is the part of us that confronts our world directly, it is also quite likely to be damaged frequently.  It has to have a method for repair.  Because it is made up of epidermis and dermis, both highly regenerative tissues, it is quite capable of much repair... but there is a limit.

Recovery after damage in general:

Think about the epidermis for starters...

    What part of the epidermis allows for regeneration?  I hope you are now thinking about the stratum basale.  All the cell division to replenish the epidermis occurs in the stratum basale.  And this epidermal layer is also the one that picks up the most nutrients from the underlying dermal blood vessels.  I have drawn an extremely simplified schematic of epidermis in the figure below in part A.   It is so simplified that not all the layers are included, and I just wrote "etc." to remind you that more layers are needed on top.  I also only drew the nuclei in the cells of the stratum basale, so that this layer would stand out.

    If you are cut very lightly, so that just the epidermis is affected (and then you don't even bleed), the cells in the stratum basale can easily divide and repair the damage.  This is shown in part B of the figure below.  In this figure, the stratum basale is unaffected, so it can just keep dividing and recreate the layers above it to return the epidermis to the "normal" condition shown in part A.

    However, if the cut is deeper, and cuts through the entire epidermis, the repair is more difficult.  First of all, you will bleed and a scab will form in the cut.  Secondly, if the two ends of the cut are at all separate, as shown in part C of the above figure, the stratum basale has to divide to re-grow and fill up the space between the ends.  After this is complete, regrowth of the entire epidermis is simple-- all that is needed is more cell division of the cells in the stratum basale.

    Now, you should understand why, when you have a large cut, it is necessary to get stitches, to sew the two ends back together.  After stitches, the stratum basale doesn't have to grow too much laterally before it encounters the other side of the cut... then it can focus on re-growing the more apical layers of the epidermis so that you will heal fully and faster.  Also, the stratum basale can only reform completely if it has something on which to grow!  It has to be able to find good dermis to sit on and to make a new basement membrane with.  If the ends are sewn back together, the dermis will recover faster as well.

Stratum Lucidum


General Characteristics of the epidermis
1. Most superficial layer of the skin
2. Stratified squamous epithelium
3. No vascularization (no blood vessels)

Layers of the epidermis

1. Stratum basale/germinativum

·        deepest layer of the epidermis;  lies on the upper portion of the dermis

·        gets adequate nourishment from under lying vascular tissue in the dermis

·        this layer contains stem cells that divide and produce the more superficial layers as daughter cells are pushed toward the surface

·        one layer of columnar or cuboidal shaped cells

2. Stratum spinosum

·        superficial to the stratum basal and deep to the stratum granulosum

·        gets adequate nourishment from under lying vascular tissue in the dermis

·        the cells appear spiky

·        more division occurs here

3. Stratum granulosum

·        3 to 5 layers of cells superficial to the stratum spinosum

·        cells are flattened and appear as a dark band

·        in the upper border of this layer the cells are beginning to die & organelles are deteriorating

·        the cytoplasm is filling with granules

o       lamellated granules which contribute to waterproofing

o       keratohyaline granules which form keratin fibrils and contribute to toughness

4. Stratum lucidum

·        clear layer

·        has mostly keratinocytes

·        only present in thick skin

5. Stratum corneum

·        horny layer

·        most superficial 20-30 cell layers

·        makes up most of the thickness of the epidermis

·        cells are dead and flattened

·        this layer is being rubbed off and replaced


Question 17: The stratum germinativum includes both the stratum basale and the
Stratum Keratin
Sratum hypolium
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum

The basal cell layer (stratum basale, or stratum germinosum), is a single layer of cells, closest to the dermis. It is usually only in this layer that cells divide. Some of the dividing cells move up to the next layer.

The prickle cell layer (stratum spinosum) is the next layer (8-10 layers of cells). The cells in these layers have lots of desmosomes, which anchor the cells to each other, and contain thick tufts of intermediate filaments (keratin). When the cell shrinks slightly, during fixation, the desmosomes from neighbouring cells remain tightly bound to each other, and these connections look like 'prickles' or 'spines', hence the name prickle cells.
The stratum germinativum composed of stratum basale and stratum spinosum, is the deepest layer of the epidermis. It is also referred to as the basal layer of the skin. The epidermis is another name for the outermost layer of skin in humans as well as other mammals. The primary function of this region is to assist in the regeneration of the epidermis.

The type of cells provided to the epidermis by the stratum germinativum are known as germinal cells. A germinal cell is simply a cell from which other cells are derived. The germinal cells developed in this layer are kept separate from the dermis by a thin membrane. The dermis makes up the majority of the thickness of the skin.

Once a cell that has originated in the stratum germinativum undergoes what is known as a mitotic division, the new cell will go through a process known as keratinization as it makes its way to the surface. Mitotic division is another term for the process of mitosis. Mitosis is the name given to the type of cell division that causes one cell to divide, thus creating more cells that are identical in nature to the original cell.

The process of keratinization turns a substance into keratin. Keratin is a type of scleroprotein and is found in various places within the body. In the case of the stratum germinativum, keratin is important to the overall health of the skin. Keratin helps keep the skin waterproof while assisting other substances, such as elastin and collagen, to give the skin the strength it needs in order to function properly.

The stratum germinativum has been found to play an important role in healing certain types of injuries to the skin, particularly thermal injuries. Scientific study involving this layer have dramatically increased the success rates of skin grafts, particularly those necessary due to third degree burns. Early skin grafts only included the top two layers of skin. Once it was discovered that skin growth and repair occur much easier and much more quickly when using the stratum germinativum, skin grafting techniques became more successful and able to be more widely used.

The more modern and successful methods of skin grafting employ the use of a layer of stratum germinativum cells. These cells are then attached to a layer of artificial skin. Other cells are attached to this basic structure at a later time. This technique has led to major medical advances in the treatment of thermal injury to the skin.

Question 18: In which layer of epidermis do the nucleus and other organelles disintegrate, and the cells die?
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum spinosum

Question 19: What is the purpose of the little hairs inside the nose that are a part of the integumentary system?
To fight disease
To keep dust outside of the lungs
They serve no purpose
To tickle the nose and cause sneezes to remove allergens

Question 20: The __________ consists of many layers of dead squamous cells surrounded by lipids
Stratum Basale
Stratus Corneum

Question 21: In which of these layers are melanocytes found?
Stratum Basale
Stratus Spinosum
Stratus Germinativum

Question 22: Thick skin
usually lacks the stratum lucidum.
is typically found on the back.
Does not produce hair
unlike thin skin develops calluses and corns.

Question 23: Most of the cells of the epidermis are
Langerhans cells.

Question 24: Which of these statements is true regarding keratinization?
The deepest cells are located in the stratum corneum.
Epithelial cells eventually die and produce an outer layer of cells.
The stratum corneum has cuboidal or columnar cells that undergo mitotic division.
The stratum basale can thicken to produce a callus.

Question 25: Cyanosis is a condition caused by
consuming large amounts of carotene
a decrease in blood oxygen.
increased blood flow to the skin.
exposure to ultraviolet light.

Question 26: Concerning skin color, which of these statements is correctly matched?
Skin appears yellow or not enough oxygen in blood.
Skin tans or increased carotene in stratum corneum.
Pale skin or shock.
Dark skin or less melanin than light skin.

Question 27: To go on living, the body's cells need food, water, chemicals, and ...

Question 28: Melanin
production occurs in melanocytes and keratinocytes.
is present in large quantities on the soles of the feet.
is responsible for skin color, but not hair color.
is packaged into vesicles called melanosomes.

Question 29: All of these conditions increase the amount of melanin in the skin EXCEPT:
Exposure to Ultraviolet Light
Addison's disease.

Question 30: Which type of burn is described by all of the following characteristics? 1. epidermis and dermis destroyed 2. initially painless 3. much scar tissue formed
first-degree burn
Second-degree burn

Fourth Degree Burn
third degree burn

Question 31: According to "the rule of nines," a man burned extensively on his head and both upper limbs has burns on __________ percent of his body.


Question 32: Which of these is the type of hair found on the fetus, but is not present after birth?
terminal hair
vellus hair
Both a and b

Hair Types: (1). Terminal hair (2). Vellus hair (3). Lanugo hair (1). Terminal hair is the type of natural hair to which most people refer in their everyday lives. It is the type of hair that grows on your head, in your pubic regions and on almost all parts of your body. A hormone called androgen controls this body hair, also known as androgenic hair. (2). Vellus hair, frequently referred to as "peach fuzz," is the short, fine, colorless hair found all over the body. During puberty, vellus hair can turn into intermediate or terminal hair. Vellus hair helps to regulate body temperature. This type of natural hair, associated with women and young children, is fairly unnoticeable. In the case of many men, vellus hair is often obscured by noticeable terminal hair. (3). Lanugo is the special downy hair that completely covers the human baby inside the womb. It is like fur, but before the fetus is born the lanugo hair is replaced by vellus hair. Anorexic women have also been known to have this type of hair on their arms.

Lanugo Hair and Vellus Hair on Infants: Lanugo hair, commonly known as womb hair, begins to grow on the embryo about five months after conception. Lanugo hair is soft, fine, and generally very light. Prior to delivery, lanugo hairs are quickly replaced with vellus hairs, which is referred to as fuzz on newborn infants. Vellus hairs are present, on mature adults, on the forehead, ears, and even the scalp--particularly when adults lose their hair, due to balding. Kinds of Adult Hair: Adults have three main kinds of hair; all three kinds are always in one of the three stages of growth. Terminal hairs, found on the limbs and trunk of the body, is dark and coarse, and grows at a slower rate than hair on the scalp. Eyebrows consist of primary terminal hair, while pubic hair is secondary terminal hair. Vellus hair is found on the forehead, ears, and even the scalp of mature adults who have begun to bald. Intermediate hair, commonly referred to as transitional hair, is in the process of shifting from terminal to vellus hair, or vice versa.

Question 33: "Peach fuzz" found on the face of a 1-year old baby is
terminal hair
vellus hair

Question 34: Terminal Hair
is found in greater quantity in adult females than in adult males.
decreases at puberty.
is fine, unpigmented hair.
is found on eyebrows and eyelids.

Question 35: The outermost layer of the hair shaft is the

Question 36: The hair follicle
has an epithelial root sheath and a dermal root sheath.
can provide epithelial cells for skin repair.
contains only the stratum germinativum at the hair bulb and has an arrector pili muscle attached..
All of the above

Question 37: Hair is formed from epithelial cells in the
dermal root sheath
hair shaft

Question 38: Scalp hairs can grow longer than eyelash hairs because
the head has a better blood supply than the eyelid.
the hair follicles in the scalp are much deeper than follicles in the eyelid.
the scalp hairs are more exposed to the sun, which stimulates growth.
the growth stage for scalp hairs is longer than for eyelash hairs.

Question 39: After the resting stage of hair growth, each hair normally
grows more rapidly.
loses its pigmentation.
produces more melanocytes.
falls out.

Question 40: Pus observed on the skin indicates that ______________
the body is trying to overcome infection
body tissues are dying
too much lymph has built up
the inflammatory response has failed to defend against bacterial invasion

Question 41: Arrector pili muscles
consist of skeletal muscle fibers.
contract in response to frightening situations.
are attached directly to the hair shaft.
cause sweat glands to contract.

Question 42: "Pattern baldness"
occurs only in men
is not genetic
involves the hormone testosterone
occurs when vellus hairs are replaced by terminal hairs

Question 43: Which glands of the skin possess all of the following characteristics? 1. secrete oily, white substance rich in lipids 2. open into a hair follicle 3. during secretion, lysis and death of secretory cells occurs
sebaceous glands
merocrine sweat glands
apocrine sweat glands
sudoriferous glands

Question 44: Which of these parts of the body have the most merocrine sweat glands?
margins of the lips
soles of the feet
back of the neck

Question 45: Apocrine sweat glands
are found everywhere in the body except the palms of the hands.
produce cerumen.
produce secretions that are metabolized by bacteria to produce odor.
are located in the external auditory meatus.

Question 46: Nails
have a hyponychium, which is the whitish, crescent-shaped area at the base of the nail.
contain proteoglycans and chondrocytes.
grow from the nail matrix
have a resting stage, similar to hair.

Question 47: The nail is __________ that contains hard keratin.
stratum Granulosum
Stratum Basale
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Spinosum

Question 48: Which of these events occur as a result of a decrease in body temperature?
blood vessels in the epidermis dilate, at first
blood vessels in the dermis constrict if skin temperature falls below 15 degrees C
sweat is produced
contraction of arrector pili muscles

Question 49: Protective functions of the integumentary system include all of these EXCEPT:
callus formation prevents damage by friction.
hair protects the head from abrasion and ultraviolet light.
skin glands produce alkaline secretions that kill bacteria.
nails protect the ends of digits.

Question 50: As a result of aging, the skin
has decreased blood flow.
has increased activity of the sebaceous and sweat glands.
generally increases the amount of melanin produced.
increases the amount of elastic fibers in the dermis.

Question 51: Which of these is NOT considered to be a cause of acne?
hormones, especially testosterone
a diet rich in fatty foods and chocolate
abnormal keratinization of hair follicles
an increase in sebum production
the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes

Question 52: Which of these qualities must a medication possess if it is absorbed from a skin patch?
water soluble
must contain keratin
lipid soluble
must be slightly acidic

Question 53: Fatty tissue located under the dermis.
Subcutaenous Tissue
Pacinian Corpuscle
Hair Erector Muscle

Question 54: a muscle is connected to each hair follicle and the skin - it contracts (in response to cold, fear, etc.), resulting in an erect hair and a "goosebump" on the skin.
hair follicle
Hair Erector Muscle
Subcutaneous Tissue
Hair Shaft

Question 55: a small, sack-shaped gland that releases oily (fatty) liquids onto the hair follicle (the oil lubricated and softens the skin). These glands are located in the dermis, usually next to hair follicles.
hair follicle
sweat gland
sebaceous gland

Question 56: the part of the hair that is above the skin.
hair follicle
erector pili muscle
hair shaft
pacinian corpuscle

Question 57: (also called sudoriferous gland) a tube-shaped gland that produces perspiration. The gland is located in the epidermis; it releases sweat onto the skin.
sebaceous gland
sudoriferous gland
sweat gland

Question 58: nerve receptors that respond to pressure and vibration; they are oval capsules of sensory nerve fibers located in the subcutaneous fatty tissue
hair follicle
blood vessels
hair erector muscle
pacinian corpuscle

Question 59: a tube-shaped sheath that surrounds the part of the hair that is under the skin. It is located in the epidermis and the dermis. The hair is nourished by the follicle at its base (this is also where the hair grows).
hair shaft
hair erector muscle
hair follicle

Question 60: What term means pertaining to the skin

Question 61: What is a malignant tumor that originates in the melanocytes and is considered the most dangerous type of skin cancer

Question 62: What is a chronic skin disease characterized by itchy red patches covered with silvery scales called

Question 63: What is redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries called?

Question 64: What is a discolored dry sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin called
Comedo also known as blackhead

Question 65: What is localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk white patches called?
Vitiligo also called leukoderma

Question 66: What is the absence or loss of hair especially on the head called

Question 67: What is the overgrowth of a scar tissue at the site of a skin injury due to excessive collagen formation during the healing process called
Skin Lesions

Question 68: What is an inflammatory disease of the sebacious follicles of the skin marked by papules and pustules called

Question 69: What are areas of pathologically altered tissue caused by disease, injury or wound called?
Skin Lesions

Question 70: What is the integumentary term for wart

Question 71: What is a contagious skin disease transmitted by itch mite called

Question 72: What is a blister like elevation of the skin containing a clear fluid called
Vesicle and large vesicles are called brullae

Question 73: What is the destruction of tissue by high frequency electric current called
Fulguration also called electrodessication

Question 74: What is the procedure that uses subfreezing temperature to destroy abnormal tissue cells such as unwanted cancerous or infected tissue

Question 75: The synthesis of what vitamin begins with activation of a prechemical (precursor) in the skin by sunlight?
Vitamin C
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin B
Vitamin E

Question 76: The medical term for scar is _____

Question 77: The outermost layer of epidermis is made of
live cells
dead cells
friction cells
cuboic cells
keratinized cells

Question 78: A(n) _____ is an open lesion on the skin or muscous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth.

Question 79: Hair and nails are composed mainly of _____.
Adipose Tissue

Question 80: Sudoriferous glands are under the control of the _____ nervous sytem and are located in the dermis.
Central Nervous System

Question 81: _____ refers to abnormal conditions of the skin resulting from contact with chemicals or other exterior agents.
failure of the T cells to defend the body
Contact Dermatitis

Question 82: _____ makes up approximately 70 percent of the dry weight of the skin and gives it strength, form, and flexibility.

Question 83: There are three kinds of fibers that intermingle with the cells of the dermis. They include all of the following EXCEPT _____.

Question 84: The _____ layer of the skn is considered to be the 'true' skin.

Question 85: A(n) _____ is a solid lump larger than a papule that projects above the surface of the skin. An example is a lipoma or cyst.

Question 86: A(n) _____ is an external swelling, varying in size, shape, and color such as a carcinoma.

Question 87: A(n) _____ is a blister containing a watery fluid.
Muscle Knot

Question 88: All of the following are symptoms of inflammation visible on the skin EXCEPT

Question 89: A(n) _____ is an itchy, swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours. An example is hives or an insect bite.
poison ivy contact

Question 90: The least malignant and most common type of skin cancer is _____.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant Melanoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Decubitus Ulceration

Question 91: Hair and nails are considered to be _____ of the skin.
Waste Products

Question 92: _____ glands are sweat glands.

Question 93: The cells of the _____ layer of the epidermis are almost dead and undergo a change into cells of the more superfical layers.
Stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum lucidum
stratum germinativum

Question 94: The _____ forms a protective layer over every part of the body and varies in thickness, being thickest in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet and thinnest on the inner sides of the limbs.

Question 95: Which one of the folloiwing is NOT primary function of the skin

Question 96: Skin brushing and therapeutic massage offer several benefits:
Sweat gland and oil gland function tend to decrease with aging. Skin brushing and massage stimulate glands and help to restore moist, supple skin
Promotes skin beauty by exciting the underlying skin regions that provide nutrients and moisture to all layers of the skin. Skin brushing and massage help to regenerate the fibers that keep the skin healthy. It can help to alleviate cellulite as well
Stimulates physiological functions: aids lymphatic drainage of the skin and increases blood flow. Also bring a relaxing effect and decrease muscular tension
All of the Above

Question 97: Differences in male and female skin include the following
Women have more subcutaneous fat, that is fat below the skin than men. Therefore women suffer from cellulite. When last did you hear a man complain about cellulite
The skin of a man is thicker than the skin of a woman and has more collagen, therefore women tend to age faster than men.
skin of a man tends to be more deeply pigmented than the skin of a woman, therefore women are known as the fairer sex.
All of the above

Question 98: Massage involves the following responses
mechanical responses as a result of pressure and movement as the soft tissues are manipulated
reflex responses in which the nerves respond to stimulation
It helps to free adhesions, break down scar tissue and decrease inflammation.
All of the above

Question 99: The Psychological Effects of Massage include
reducing stress and anxiety by relaxing both mind and body
ease emotional trauma through relaxation
promote positive body awareness and an improved body image through relaxation
All of the above

Question 100: Following are the benefits of sports massage
Even with preventative maintenance, muscles cramp, tear, bruise, and ache. Sports massage can speed healing and reduce discomfort during the rehabilitation process.
Cross-fibre friction techniques can help with healing by improved formation of strong and flexible repair tissue, which is vital in maintaining full pain-free range of motion during rehabilitation.
Trigger point techniques reduce the spasm and pain that occur both in the injured and compensation muscles.
All of the above

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